Adafruit DS18B20 Digital temperature sensor + extras
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These 1-wire digital temperature sensors are fairly precise (±0.5°C over much of the range) and can give up to 12 bits of precision from the onboard digital-to-analog converter. They work great with any microcontroller using a single digital pin, and you can even connect multiple ones to the same pin, each one has a unique 64-bit ID burned in at the factory to differentiate them. Usable with 3.0-5.0V systems.
The only downside is they use the Dallas 1-Wire protocol, which is somewhat complex, and requires a bunch of code to parse out the communication. There's a great Arduino library for 1-Wire, but some microcontrollers do not have support for 1-Wire so be sure to check!
We toss in a 4.7k resistor, which is required as a pullup from the DATA to VCC line when using the sensor. We don't have a detailed tutorial up yet but you can get started by using the Dallas Temperature Control Arduino library which requires also the OneWire Library.